Natural lymphatic (“atypical”) actinobacillosis in cattle caused by Actinobacillus lignieresii. Caffarena RD(1)(2), Rabaza A(1)(2), Casaux L(1)(2). Actinobacillosis is a globally prevalent infectious animal disease caused by Gram -negative bacilli of the genus Actinobacillus. Actinobacillus lignieresii is a. Species/Subspecies: Actinobacillus lignieresii. Etymology: Genus name: small ray rod (ray refers to the histological picture of radially localized club-like.

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An imported crossbred Angus beef steer aged ligniereii to twelve months died suddenly on the eighth day of a quarantine period in Japan. Gross examination showed the peritoneum and mesentery consisted of numerous nodules of various sizes. Histological examination revealed chronic suppurative granulomatous peritonitis with eosinophilic rosettes surrounding colonies of Gram-negative bacilli.

The adtinobacillus isolated from the nodules were confirmed to be Actinobacillus lignieresii based on the results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing and immunohistochemistry.

Antibiotic sensitivity testing showed that the isolate was resistant to penicillin.

Thus, a diagnosis of atypical actinobacillosis caused by A. Actinobacillosis is a globally prevalent infectious animal disease caused by Gram-negative bacilli of the genus Actinobacillus. Actinobacillus lignieresii is actijobacillus common commensal inhabitant of the ruminant oral cavity.

The bacteria can cause infection by invading adjacent soft tissues after the development of a penetrating wound. This type of A. However, the infection may not be limited to the oral cavity and tongue, and can spread to the adjacent soft tissues of the mouth and regional actinobacilluus nodes [ 8 ].

Granulomatous lesions in the skin cutaneous formlymph nodes [ 5 ], head, flank, wall of the stomach and limbs [ 2 ] have been reported in actinogacillus of A.

Atypical Actinobacillus granulomas have been identified in the nasal cavity, cervical area and the lungs in cattle [ 7 ]. These lesions had been confused with neoplasms, nasal polyps or exuberant granulation tissue [ 7 ].

Natural lymphatic (“atypical”) actinobacillosis in cattle caused by Actinobacillus lignieresii.

Furthermore, actinobacillua granulomas have been detected in the abdomen of cows after Cesarean sections [ 3 ]. The purpose of this case study is to describe atypical A. Nine hundred sixty crossbred Angus cattle 8 to 12 months of age were imported from Australia to Japan.

Upon delivery to Japan, none of the cattle showed abnormal clinical signs or evidence lignieresio disease. Two animals died during the day quarantine period: Necropsy was performed on both animals. No clinical abnormalities were observed in remaining cattle.


Natural lymphatic (“atypical”) actinobacillosis in cattle caused by Actinobacillus lignieresii.

In addition, to comply with animal health requirements for importing cattle to Actibobacillus from Australia, animals were treated with long-acting oxytetracycline for lignnieresii. Gross necropsy examination of animal 1 revealed extensive adhesions between the peritoneum and the intestines.

Both the peritoneum and mesentery had numerous firm nodules of varying sizes Fig. The jejunal mucosa was extensively congested and focally thickened. The mesenteric lymph nodes were moderately swollen. Foamy fluid was identified in the trachea, and blood clots were found at the tracheal bifurcation.

Petechial to ecchymotic hemorrhages were observed throughout the lungs. No gross lesions were found in other organs, including the brain and spinal cord. Gross finding of the peritoneum showing extensive adhesion to the intestine. Numerous firm foci were disseminated throughout the peritoneum and lingieresii mesentery. Low magnification of the abdominal mass demonstrating granuloma surrounded by extensive fibrous tissue.

Eosinophilic club-like spicules asteroid bodies contain bacterial colonies. A lot of neutrophils and macrophages infiltrate around the granule. Immunohistochemistry showing that bacilli in the asteroid bodies react with an antibody against A.

Histological examination revealed that the affected peritoneum of animal 1 was composed of multiple suppurative granulomas Fig. The colonies were Gram-negative bacilli on Gram stain, and those were surrounded by neutrophils, macrophages and fibroblasts and showed evidence of neovascularization Fig.

Some coccidial lignieresji were observed at the mucosa of the jejunum. Lymphangiectasia and slight to moderate inflammatory cell infiltration to the jejunal lamina propria were noted surrounding the protozoan lesions. The bronchiolar lumen contained a small amount of red blood cells, necrotic cells, avtinobacillus colonies and food debris, and moderate diffuse congestion llignieresii observed in the lung. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the A.

The tissues were then incubated with rabbit anti- A. Immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated that the Gram-negative bacilli identified in the asteroid bodies of the suppurative granulomas reacted with the antibody against A.

A Gram-negative bacillus was isolated from the nodules of the peritoneum, and the isolate was catalase and oxidase positive. No bacteria were isolated from any of the other tissue samples. The isolate was assayed for susceptibility to 7 antibiotics: The isolate was identified as A. The typical clinical manifestation of A. However, atypical actinobacillosis is also common. Atypical distribution of granulomatous lesions with A. In the case reported here, tuberculosis, nocardiosis and actinomycosis were actjnobacillus suspected for a differential diagnosis, however, immunohistochemical analysis and isolation, identification and genetic sequencing of isolate denied these diseases and confirmed the diagnosis of A.


Lignieresiu presence of granulomas on the peritoneum suggests the organism was disseminated either via blood or via lymphatic vessels.


Young cattle are at a risk for infection and may develop the characteristic lesions in a few days [ 8 ]. In our case, the stress actinobqcillus transportation is a likely predisposing factor for the infection.

Animal 2 died of severe fibrinous pneumonia. The cause of death in this animal was bovine respiratory disease complex unrelated to the actinobacillosis identified actinboacillus animal 1. However, the isolate was susceptible to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim.

The susceptibility of this bacterium to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim is important, because of the rare zoonotic potential of A. The occurrence of A. Therefore, additional investigations acinobacillus be necessary to confirm the difference of pathogenicity among the conventional strains of A.

The authors thank Mr. Shimada for histopathological assistance. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.

J Vet Med Sci. Published online Lignieersii Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Received Aug 1; Accepted Oct 5. Abstract An imported crossbred Angus beef steer aged eight to twelve months died suddenly on the eighth day of a quarantine period in Japan. Actinobacillus lignieresiicattle, peritoneal granuloma. Open in a separate window.

Actinobacillosis – Wikipedia

Acknowledgments The actimobacillus thank Mr. An atypical case of respiratory actinobacillosis in a cow. Atypical cutaneous actinobacillosis in young beef cattle. Actinobacillosis in bovine caesarean sections. Actinobacillus lignieresii infection after a horse bite. Atypical actinobacillosis in bulls in Argentina: Clinical recognition and treatment of bovine cutaneous actinobacillosis.

Atypical actinobacillosis granulomas in cattle. Actinobacillus species and their role in animal disease. Actinobacillosis of the omentum in a cow. Support Center Support Center. Please review our privacy policy.